18 December 2017 - NEW BLOG


19 November 2016 - What is the Eschatocol?

An eschatocol from 1317
An eschatocol from 1317

An eschatocol is a final clause at the end of a legal or public document, which may include a formulaic sentence of appreciation and the attestation of those responsible for the document,such as the author, the writer, the countersigner, principal parties involved and any witnesses to the enactment or subscription.


IN FAITH AND TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereto set and subscribed my name and affixed my seal of office at London this 8th day of October, (year).

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed my seal Notarial at Ottawa this 8th day of October, (year).

SWORN TO AND SUBSCRIBED before me, the undersigned authority, this 8th day of October, (year). IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and official seal.

Similarly, an authorized translator's eschatocol is given at the end of their translation.

"I, the undersigned,

Heike Schwarz,

authorised by the President of the Higher Regional Court in Düsseldorf to certify the accuracy and completeness of translations for the languages German and English,

declare that the translation of the attached 

(Document title)

is to the best of my knowledge and belief a true and faithful rendering of the original German, done to the best of my ability as a professional translator.

I therefore certify the accuracy and completeness of the above translation from the German language.

(Signature and seal)

Heike Schwarz,
Düsseldorf, (date)"

11 March 2014 - Translators Without Borders

Just completed a rewarding pro bono job via Translator's Without Borders:

"Dear Heike,

Thanks very much for the translation made for MSF Pakistan - your contribution is much appreciated and will directly support our medical field projects here in PK.

Kind regards

Stephanie Johnston
MSF Intersectional Pharmacist,
Islamabad, Pakistan"

10 September 2013 - We really need to reverse this way of thinking

Translators are a waste of space, a three minute film, full of wit, published by the Norwegian Association of Literary Translators, copyright of text and voice courtesy Erik Skuggevik 2013, produced by Ivar Grimstad.

28 August 2013 - Various definitions of a native speaker by language scholars...

Six defining features of a native speaker that numerous scholars in the field of Second Language Acquisition and language teaching support agree with.

1. The individual acquired the language in early childhood (Davies, 1991; McArthur, 1992; Phillipson, 1992) and maintains the use of the language (Kubota, 2004; McArthur, 1992),

2. the individual has intuitive knowledge of the language (Davies, 1991; Stern, 1983),

3. the individual is able to produce fluent, spontaneous discourse (Davies, 1991; Maum, 2002; Medgyes, 1992),

4. the individual is communicatively competent (Davies, 1991; Liu, 1999; Medgyes, 1992), able to communicate within different social settings (Stern, 1983),

5. the individual identifies with or is identified by a language community (Davies, 1991; Johnson & Johnson, 1998; Nayar, 1998)

6. the individual does not have a foreign accent (Coulmas, 1981; Medgyes, 1992; Scovel, 1969, 1988).


What does the native speaker know?

1. appropriate use of idiomatic expressions (Coulmas, 1981; Medgyes, 1992, 1994; Phillipson, 1996),

2. correctness of language form (Coulmas, 1981; Davies, 1991; Phillipson, 1996),

3. natural pronunciation (Coulmas, 1981; Medgyes, 1992, 1994),

4. cultural context (Medgyes, 1992, 1994; Phillipson, 1996) including “response cries” (Goffman, 1978, cited in Coulmas, 1981), swear words, and interjections,

5. above average sized vocabulary, collocations and other phraseological items (Coulmas, 1981; Medgyes, 1992, 1994),

6. metaphors (Coulmas, 1981),

7. frozen syntax, such as binomials or bi-verbials (Coulmas, 1981),

8. nonverbal cultural features (Coulmas, 1981; Davies, 1991).

Compiled by Joseph Lee (read full article HERE)

20 June 2013 - Dissertation topic approved

Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf
Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf

I am very happy that City University has approved my research proposal. I intend delivering an annotated translation of the rather controversial judgment by the Higher Regional Court of Dusseldorf (OLG Düsseldorf) regarding METRO AG's access to leniency documents from the antitrust proceedings against Tchibo, Melitta and Dallmayr. I also intend translating the notice of appeal which is currently being drafted. The end result will be available on this website as of May 2014. Watch this space!

4 June 2013 - Interview with prominent South African translator Antje Krog

Antjie Krog, poet, writer, translator, professor.
Antjie Krog, poet, writer, translator, professor.

Antje Krog is interviewed by Peter Mc Donald of Oxford University on her "relationship to English, Afrikaans and African languages, and the promise and perils of translation".

The interview is about an hour - so you would have to be REALLY interested! Listen HERE.

And HERE issue #52.3 of the Chartered Institute of Linguists' magazine, THE LINGUIST, features some of Professor Krog's issues in her translation of Nelson Mandela's Long walk to freedom.

3 June 2013 - Limited offer for a free 100 word sample translation

Any first time visitor is eligible for a free 100 word sample translation between any two of the above languages upon entering their details here.

2 June 2013 - Heike refers to ex-members of the Japanese imperial family?

Emblem of the Taira clan
Emblem of the Taira clan

Courtesy of Wikipedia:

"Taira clan was a major Japanese clan of samurai in historical Japan. In reference to Japanese history, along with Minamoto, Taira was a hereditary clan name bestowed by the emperors of the Heian period to certain ex-members of the imperial family when they became subjects. The Taira clan is often referred to as Heishi or Heike (literally "House of Taira"), using the character's Chinese reading hei."


31 May 2013 - Heike Schwarz is now a member of IoL

See more about The Chartered Institute of Linguists at www.iol.org.uk/ .

23 & 24 May 2013 - Lecture on Financial Translation by Fry & Bonthrone

Enjoyed an excellent lecture on financial translation by Robin Bonthrone. How to turn financial source texts into accurate and stylish target texts? The lecture gives interested translators a good taste of a field that is a science in its own right. Some terms that come to mind are: Bonds, IPOs, futures, swaps, prospectuses, executive summaries for investment roadshows, IFRS, HGB, German GAAP, etc.

See more about Fry & Bonthrone at: www.fb-partners.com

7 May 2013 - Volunteer Job for TWB

I was privileged to provide my services to translators without borders today, although it was a very short translation, the target text is sure to help many a soul, or at least, in the words of Perle Jonot from Handicap International: "Many thanks for your help on this. It was quite urgent."